REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN
Administrative territorial division: 43 municipal areas and 2 urban districts (Kazan and Naberezhnye Chelny).
The head of the republic: President of the Republic of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov.
Government: Сabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan, Prime Minister Ildar Khalikov.
Parliament: State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan (unicameral), Chairman Farid Mukhametshin.
Population: 3803,2 people (2012), Tatars — 53.2%, Russians – 39.7% (2010 Census results).
From 1990 the republic has adopted three crucial documents — the Declaration of State Sovereignty, the Constitution and the Treaty with the Russian Federation on Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Powers. The three documents together form the basis for legal state, political stability of the society, economic reforms.On April 19, 2002, the State Council of Tatarstan adopted the revised version of the Constitution. The Constitution proclaims an individual, his rights and liberties the highest value and obliges the Republic of Tatarstan to accept, observe and protect human and civil rights and freedoms. The Tatarstan Constitution provides for such principles as universal suffrage, freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, right to participate in political parties and organizations, etc.
In accordance with the Tatarstan Constitution, from June 2000 the republic has the institution of the Commissioner for human rights in the Republic of Tatarstan. The post of Commissioner for the child rights in the Tatarstan Republic is founded in 2010.
The Tatarstan Constitution secures the division of legislative, executive and judicial powers.
The President is the head of state and highest official in Tatarstan. He heads the executive system of the republic and directs the Cabinet of Ministers — executive and administrative authority. The Cabinet is accountable to the President. The candidature of a Prime Minister is suggested by the President and approved by the Parliament of Tatarstan.
Unicameral State Council (Parliament) is the supreme representative and legislative authority of Tatarstan.
The bodies of local self-government are independent within their powers and do not belong to the system of state authorities.
The judicial power in Tatarstan is executed by the Constitutional Court, federal courts of general jurisdiction, the Arbitrary Court of the Republic of Tatarstan and justices of the peace. Judicial proceedings and records management are carried out in accordance with the federal legislation.
Tatarstan is situated in the Eastern part of the East European Plain at the confluence of two biggest rivers – the Volga and the Kama. Kazan is located 797 km far from Moscow.
The total area of the republic is 6783,7 thousand hectares. It spreads from North to South at 290 km and from West to East at 460 km from. Tatarstan has no borders with foreign states.
Tatarstan territory is a high stepped plain divided by dense network of river valleys. The plain is divided in three parts: the Pre-Volga, Pre-Kama and Trans-Kama areas.
The Pre-Volga region with maximum altitudes of 276 m occupies the northeastern part of the Volga Highland. The border lines of Mozhga and Sarapul highlands divided by Izh River Valley touch Eastern Pre-Kama region in the North. Maximum altitudes reach 243 m. Bugulma Highland located in Eastern Trans-Kama region is the highest in Tatarstan (381 m). The lowest relief is characteristic of the Western Trans-Kama region (up to 200 m).
17 per cent of the republic territory is covered with forests consisting of broad-leaved trees (oak, lime, birch, aspen). Pine wood is presented by pine and fir tree. 433 species of vertebrates and several thousand species of invertebrates inhabit Tatarstan territory.
The climate is moderate-continental with warm summer and cold-temperate winter. The warmest month is July with the average monthly temperature 18 – 20 °С, the coldest is January with the average monthly temperature -13 °С. Duration of warm period (with stable temperature above 0 °С) varies within 198-209 days, cold period — 156-167 days. Fallouts are spread rather regularly, the yearly amount makes 460 – 540 mm.
The soil varies from grey forest podsol in the Northern and Western parts to different kinds of black earth soil in the Southern part of the republic.
The Volga-Kama State Natural Biosphere Reserve and the National Park “Nizhnyaya Kama” are located on Tatarstan territory. The Volga-Kama State Natural Biosphere Reserve is located in Zelenodolsk and Laishevo municipal regions of the Republic of Tatarstan. Two detached areas of the reserve, Saralovsky (4170 hectares) and Raifa (5921 hectares), are located at a distance of about 100 km. The National Park “Nizhnyaya Kama” is located on the territory of Elabuga and Tukai municipal regions. There are several land and water tourist routes down the woodlands, and water routes down the water-storage basin, down the Kama and Kriusha rivers.
At present, the use of the State Flag and the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Tatarstan as well as playing of the State Anthem of the Republic of Tatarstan are regulated by the Law about state symbols of the Republic of Tatarstan.
The National Flag
of the Republic of Tatarstan
The national Flag of the Republic of Tatarstan represents rectangle cloth with horizontal strips of green, white and red colours. The white strip makes 1/15 width a flag and is located between equal in width the strips of green and red colours. A green strip is above.
The relation of width of a flag to its length — 1:2.
The author of The National Flag of the Republic of Tatarstan is T.G. Khaziakhmetov.
The State Emblem
of the Republic of Tatarstan
The State Emblem of the Republic of Tatarstan represents the image of a winged leopard with a round shield on one side, with the raised right forepaw on a background of a disk of the sun placed in a frame from the Tatar national ornament in which basis an inscription «Tatarstan», wings consist of seven feathers, the socket on a shield consists of eight petals.
In colour depiction of the State Emblem of the Republic of Tatarstan the sun is red, the leopard, his wings and the socket on a board are white, the frame is green, the shield, the ornament on the frame and the inscription «Tatarstan» are golden.
The authors of the State Emblem of the Republic of Tatarstan are N.G. Khanzafarov (idea), and R.Z. Fakhrutdinov (performance).
According to the 2010 All-Russian Population Census Tatarstan’s population makes 3,786,400 people.
The Republic of Tatarstan, ranked eighth in Russia in terms of population after Moscow, St. Petersburg, the Krasnodar Territory, the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Moscow, Sverdlovsk and Rostov Regions. The Republic is the second in the Volga Federal District in terms of population.
In comparison with 2002, the population of the Republic of Tatarstan increased by 7.1 thousand (0.2%).
In Tatarstan, the proportion of urban population in 2012 was 75,7%. The capital of the Republic Kazan is the biggest city.
Tatarstan is one of Russia’s most ethnically diverse areas of. According to 2010 All-Russian Population Census, representatives of over 173 ethnic groups live in the Republic, including 8 nationalities, the number of which exceeds 10,000 people: Tatars, Russians, Chuvashes, Udmurts, Mordovians, Maris, Ukrainians and Bashkirs. Among the peoples of Tatarstan, the biggest group is Tatars (over 2 million people or 53,2%), followed by Russians (more than1.5 million people or 39.7%) and Chuvashes (116.2 thousand people or 3.1%).
History, culture, religion
Volga Bulgaria was the first state formed in the region. It was created by Turkic tribes at the turn of 9 th-10th centuries. In 922 Islam became an official religion. In 1236 Bulgaria was merged into the Empire of Genghis Khan, after that it became a part of the Golden Horde and as a result of its dissolution a new state, the Kazan Khanate, emerged in 1438 and was incorporated to Russia in 1552.
In 1920 the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was declared.
The Declaration on State Sovereignty of the republic was adopted on August 30, 1990. In 1994 the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan on Delimitation of the Jurisditional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Powers between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan was signed. It was followed by the Treaty on Delimitation of the Jurisdictional Subjects and Powers between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan in 2007.
People with various historical and cultural traditions live in the republic. The combination of at least three types of cultural interaction (Turkic, Russian-Slavic and Finno-Ugric) defines the uniqueness of this area, the originality of cultural and historical values.
Destinies of many outstanding cultural workers are intertwined with Tatarstan: singer Feodor Chaliapin, writers Leo Tolstoy, Sergey Aksakov and Maxim Gorky, Vasily Aksenov, poets Evgeny Boratinsky, Gavriil Derzhavin, Marina Tsvetaeva and Nikita Zabolotsky, artists Ivan Shishkin and Nikolay Feshin. Such classics of Tatar poetry as Gabdulla Tukay, hero and poet Musa Jalil, composers Farid Yarullin, Salih Saidashev, Nazib Zhiganov, Sofia Gubaidulina and many others made the Tatar culture famous.
The traditional religions of the Republic of Tatarstan are Islam and Orthodox Christianity. Tatars and Bashkirs (i.e. nearly half of the population of the republic) confess Islam. The others, including Russians, Chuvashes, Maris, Udmurts, Mordovians – are Orthodox Christians. Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism and other confessions are also presented in Tatarstan.
Keeping the balance of interests between the two major religions and equality of all religions before the law lies at the heart of inter-faith consent in the republic.
Tatarstan is one of the most economically developed regions in Russia. Republic is located in the center of large industrial region of the Russian Federation at the crossing of important highways connecting East and West, North and South of the country. The Republic of Tatarstan is rich in natural resources, powerful and diversified industry, high intellectual potential and qualified human resources.
2,2 % of Russia’s farmlands are used by the Republic of Tatarstan, 5% of the country’s agricultural produce are manufactured in republic.
The share of industry in the Tatarstan gross regional product is 44,1%, construction – 8,6%, transport and communications – 7,7%, agriculture – 7,1 %.
The industrial sector of republic is presented by the oil-gas-chemical complex (oil production, manufacturing of synthetic rubber, tyres, polyethylene, and wide range of oil refinery products), major engineering enterprises manufacturing competitive products (heavy trucks, helicopters, aircrafts, aircraft engines, compressors, oil-gas-pumping equipment, river and sea vessels, commercial and motor cars), development of electric and radio instrument engineering.
The share of small and medium-size business in gross regional product makes 25 %.
Technoparks are actively developing in the Republic of Tatarstan. ZAO “Innovative-production technopark “Idea”, industrial site KIP “Master”, IT-park, Technopolis “Himgard” are efficiently operating. The special economic zone of industrial-production type “Alabuga” was founded at the end of 2005. Currently there are 42 residents on its territory.
The following tax benefits are provided for residents of SEZ “Alabuga”:
- Reduced profit tax rate — 13,5 % instead of 20 %
- Exemption from transport tax during 10 years from the date of vehicle registration
- Exemption from property tax during 10 years from the date of property registration in accounting report
- Exemption from land tax during 10 years for land plots located on the territory of SEZ
- Higher depreciation charge can be used for taxation (i.e. standard depreciation charge must not exceed the standard rate twice)